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创建MySQL Cloud Service时,会要求提供一个SSH登录密钥,所有的Oracle云服务主机登录用户都是opc,因此在服务创建完毕,收到通知邮件之后,就可以通过ssh登录到服务器上。

登录到主机以后,服务器显示了MySQL运行状态和存储使用量的提醒。

MySQL Cloud Service Host

这里介绍了 Oracle MySQL Cloud Service 提供的安全选件功能,如果我们用MySQL Workbench登录到数据库中,在Server Status页面可以看到:SSL连接,PAM验证,密码校验,数据库审计等多种安全功能全部是开启的。

Oracle RDS security

类比,阿里云的 MySQL RDS 并没有开启任何安全选项,或许是为了性能考虑?

Aliyun RDS security

Oracle对于数据库安全性的看重确实超越了大多数数据库提供商,而这也带来了一些小麻烦。

在创建MySQL云服务的时候,需要指定数据库root用户的密码,这个密码有比较强的安全要求,需要有大写、小写英文字母,有数字,同时还需要有特殊字符(比如#)。因此在后续创建Login Path时,在mysql_config_editor命令提示输入密码的时候,需要在密码前后加上双引号(比如”Passw#rd”),否则会一直出现拒绝访问的提示。

--opc用户没有办法直接登录MySQL,需要切换到oracle用户
[opc@mysql-cloud-mysql-1 ~]$ mysql -uroot -p
Please switch to "oracle" user to use mysql client
[opc@mysql-cloud-mysql-1 ~]$ sudo su - oracle
--使用密码直接登录是没有问题的
[oracle@mysql-cloud-mysql-1 ~]$ mysql -uroot -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1509246
Server version: 5.7.17-enterprise-commercial-advanced-log MySQL Enterprise Server - Advanced Edition (Commercial)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> exit
Bye
--创建Login Path,仍然输入上述一样的密码
[oracle@mysql-cloud-mysql-1 ~]$ mysql_config_editor set --host=localhost --user=root --password
Enter password:
--检查确认Login Path已经创建成功
[oracle@mysql-cloud-mysql-1 ~]$ mysql_config_editor print --login-path=client
[client]
user = root
password = *****
host = localhost
--直接登录报错
[oracle@mysql-cloud-mysql-1 ~]$ mysql
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' (using password: YES)
--在密码前后加上双引号重新创建Login Path
[oracle@mysql-cloud-mysql-1 ~]$ mysql_config_editor set --host=localhost --user=root --password
Enter password:
WARNING : 'client' path already exists and will be overwritten.
 Continue? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : Y
--再次登录,成功
[oracle@mysql-cloud-mysql-1 ~]$ mysql
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1510011
Server version: 5.7.17-enterprise-commercial-advanced-log MySQL Enterprise Server - Advanced Edition (Commercial)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> status
--------------
mysql  Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.7.17, for linux-glibc2.5 (x86_64) using  EditLine wrapper

Connection id:		1510011
Current database:
Current user:		root@localhost
SSL:			Not in use
Current pager:		stdout
Using outfile:		''
Using delimiter:	;
Server version:		5.7.17-enterprise-commercial-advanced-log MySQL Enterprise Server - Advanced Edition (Commercial)
Protocol version:	10
Connection:		Localhost via UNIX socket
Server characterset:	utf8mb4
Db     characterset:	utf8mb4
Client characterset:	utf8
Conn.  characterset:	utf8
UNIX socket:		/tmp/mysql.sock
Uptime:			10 days 13 hours 24 min 56 sec

Threads: 13  Questions: 50733146  Slow queries: 0  Opens: 6203  Flush tables: 1  Open tables: 4808  Queries per second avg: 55.610
--------------

在进行Audit功能的检查之前,对于默认的mysql命令行提示只有mysql> 这样简陋的显示不能忍,要加上当前登录的用户和数据库名称。在oracle用户的.my.cnf下增加以下行。

[mysql]
prompt=\\u@\\h [\\d]>\\_

再次登录,mysql命令行的提示就比较顺眼了。

[oracle@mysql-cloud-mysql-1 ~]$ mysql
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1510385
Server version: 5.7.17-enterprise-commercial-advanced-log MySQL Enterprise Server - Advanced Edition (Commercial)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

root@localhost [(none)]> show databases;
+-------------------------+
| Database                |
+-------------------------+
| information_schema      |
| mem                     |
| mem__advisor_text       |
| mem__advisors           |
| mem__bean_config        |
| mem__config             |
| mem__enterprise         |
| mem__events             |
| mem__instruments        |
| mem__instruments_config |
| mem__inventory          |
| mem__quan               |
| mysql                   |
| performance_schema      |
| sys                     |
| testdb                  |
+-------------------------+
16 rows in set (0.00 sec)

root@localhost [(none)]> use testdb
Database changed
root@localhost [testdb]> show tables;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

root@localhost [testdb]>

接下来进入本文的正题,在Oracle MySQL Cloud Service中默认是如何设置Audit的? 首先先检查一下audit_log的相关参数设置。

root@localhost [testdb]> show variables like 'audit_log_%';
+-----------------------------+--------------+
| Variable_name               | Value        |
+-----------------------------+--------------+
| audit_log_buffer_size       | 1048576      |
| audit_log_connection_policy | ALL          |
| audit_log_current_session   | ON           |
| audit_log_exclude_accounts  |              |
| audit_log_file              | audit.log    |
| audit_log_filter_id         | 0            |
| audit_log_flush             | OFF          |
| audit_log_format            | NEW          |
| audit_log_include_accounts  |              |
| audit_log_policy            | ALL          |
| audit_log_rotate_on_size    | 1073741824   |
| audit_log_statement_policy  | ERRORS       |
| audit_log_strategy          | ASYNCHRONOUS |
+-----------------------------+--------------+
13 rows in set (0.01 sec)

那么audit_log_file=audit.log表示仍然使用了默认的名字,到MySQL的数据文件目录中检查一下audit.log文件的存在。

[oracle@mysql-cloud-mysql-1 mysql]$ ls -l audit*
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oracle  838348830 Apr 21 13:42 audit.log
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oracle 1073742130 Apr 14 23:20 audit.log.14922120508218349.xml

这里可以看到总共的audit日志已经有1.9GB之大,在第一个audit.log达到audit_log_rotate_on_size参数设置的大小之后,自动切换成了新的audit.log。

题外话,之所以有这么巨大的audit.log,是由于启用了MySQL Enterprise Monitor,不断地记录了Monitor进程的登录和退出,为了方便后面观察audit.log,先将Monitor停止。

[oracle@mysql-cloud-mysql-1 monitor]$ pwd
/u01/bin/enterprise/monitor
[oracle@mysql-cloud-mysql-1 monitor]$ ./mysqlmonitorctl.sh stop
Stopping tomcat service . [ OK ]

接下来进行一些常规操作,并观察audit.log文件的输出内容。

1. 用root用户登录,在audit文件中显示一条Connect类型的记录。TIMESTAMP记录了时间,USER标签记录了登录的用户,HOST标签记录了登录的机器,COMMAND_CLASS为connect。

NewImage

2. 尝试直接CTAS一张测试表,在enforce_gtid_consistency=ON时会报1786错误,这是GTID特性决定的。

root@localhost [testdb]> create table mytables as select * from information_schema.tables;
ERROR 1786 (HY000): Statement violates GTID consistency: CREATE TABLE ... SELECT.

在audit.log中也记录下了这次报错的操作,STATUS标签为错误代码1786,STATUS_CODE标签值为1表示这条SQL没有成功执行,SQLTEXT标签记录了整个SQL语句。

NewImage

3. 下面的三条语句,select,create table,insert均没有在audit.log中记录下来。

root@localhost [testdb]> select count(*) from information_schema.tables;
+----------+
| count(*) |
+----------+
|      591 |
+----------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

root@localhost [testdb]> create table mytables like information_schema.tables;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.10 sec)

root@localhost [testdb]> insert into mytables select * from information_schema.tables;
Query OK, 592 rows affected (1.94 sec)
Records: 592  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

这样的行为是由audit_log_statement_policy=ERRORS参数决定的,默认只记录报错的SQL,而不会记录所有的执行语句。

4. 将audit_log_statement_policy参数修改为ALL,再执行同样的select语句。

root@localhost [testdb]> SET GLOBAL audit_log_statement_policy = ALL;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

root@localhost [testdb]> select count(*) from mytables;
+----------+
| count(*) |
+----------+
|      592 |
+----------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

可以发现audit.log中已经有记录了。

NewImage

结论:在Oracle MySQL Cloud Service中默认会启动MySQL Enterprise Audit组件,并且设置即记录用户登录又记录执行语句(audit_log_policy=ALL),用户登录情况则不管登录成功还是失败每次都记录(audit_log_connection_policy=ALL),而执行语句则只记录执行失败的语句(audit_log_statement_policy=ERRORS)。

感谢Kamus

看完了要说点啥么?